14 January 2009


Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945) was the thirty-second President of the United States and the only President to have served more than eight years. The two-term limit was an unwritten rule since the country's founding as many presidents accepted it as convention. Not until the 22nd amendment in 1947 did the term limit become part of the Constitution and that applies to two elected terms with the stipulation that a vice president filling out the reminder of term would not be eligible for a second term if more than two years remained on the unexpired term.
In trying to combat the Great Depression, in addition to new government programs, new taxes were introduced. Payroll tax was created in 1937 to fund Social Security. Most states added income and sales tax to combat declining revenues. The withholding tax came into existence in 1943. To fund World War II, Roosevelt increased marginal tax rates for top earners to almost 90% and lowered personal exemptions for all individuals.

World War II started in Roosevelt's third term and the war in Europe ended shortly after his death in the first year of his fourth term. He served 12 years as President.

Roosevelt's Four Freedoms presented in his 1941 State of the Union speech:

"In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms.

The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world.

The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world.

The third is freedom from want--which, translated into universal terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants--everywhere in the world.

The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world."

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